Myanmar is very rich in freshwater biodiversity. The inland water ecosystem of Myanmar is associated with four major rivers, the Ayeyarwady, Chindwin, Thanlwin and Sittaung. Freshwater and wetland biodiversity and ecosystems provide essential ecosystem services to the Myanmar people. Sadly, many freshwater species and habitats are rapidly being degraded and destroyed, due to several threats. Some species face habitat lost and dramatic population declines due to human activities. Conservation is urgently needed to protect freshwater habitats and populations of important threatened species.